You should have a look at an elementary particle physics book. Just learn what particles are enlisted in every category(fermions-bosons)- (quarks,leptons,hadrons) ,some basic properties of them (such as their spin), how they interact (strong,weak,E/M interactions) , their specific quantum number (lepton number, baryon number, and the conservation principles ( such us the consarvation of strangeness).
The electron and muon are both leptons.They have exactly the same properties exept from mass. Sometimes the muon is called "a heavy electron".
The graviton and photon are bosons, and they are the carriers of gravitational and E/M interactions respectively. THe protons and pions are composite particles ( baryons and mesons respectively).Baryons consit of 3 quarks, while mesons consist of 2 quarks and 1 anti-quark.