For courses, it really depends on the school program. In general, you cannot "transfer" graduate level courses unless there are some very special circumstances. I had a Canadian Masters degree when applying to US PhD schools and here are some of the schools' responses when I asked about my courses:
1. One school said that nothing will transfer at all, but if my MSc courses is equivalent to one of their core classes, I can replace the core class with an elective. That is, I don't have to retake anything but I still take the same amount of courses.
2. Another school said that their list of 12 courses is technically all optional -- as soon as you pass the qualifying exam, you are with courses. So, I can challenge the exam (happens every year) whenever I feel that my MSc courses + PhD courses has prepared me enough.
3. Another school had a minor/breadth requirement (3 out of 16 courses) that could be waived if you had a MSc.
I think the most common answer was something like #1 though.
As for what sorts of schools to aim for, probably applying to a whole range of schools is the safest. But since it sounds like you are already in a program you don't really like, I would be more careful / be more picky in making sure I like the programs I'm applying to. That is, in your shoes, I probably would not really apply to any "safety" schools (in the sense that it's not a school you are really interested in, but it's better than nothing). In your shoes, after already experiencing a school I didn't like, if I didn't get into any program I really liked then I would either consider staying put and finishing or just do something completely different (i.e. not grad school). But that's just me!