You definitely don't have to only be a teacher! Or do you mean to include researchers and profs in the same category?
Here are what some people I personally know are currently working as, and their highest degree. I don't really know their job titles so I'm just making stuff up.
Google (PhD Physics) -- Not really sure what they actually do for google, sorry
Amazon (PhD Physics) -- Also no details, but something about a project on analyzing customer or sales trends
Museum Science Officer (MSc Astronomy) -- responsible for the science programs at the museum
Private firm in geography (BSc Astronomy) -- uses satellite imagery at several wavelengths to create topographical maps of regions (e.g. to find underground caverns, to create a map of tree heights in an area etc.)
Copyeditor (MSc Physics along with graduate degree in publishing) -- Works with textbooks and popular science works
Lab Manager (MSc Medical Physics) -- Research scientist for a medical physics group and also manages its research personnel
Film industry (MSc Physics, PhD graduate student) -- Science advisor for a movie or TV series
Video game industry (PhD Astronomy) -- I actually don't know this person personally, but their advisor told me this happened
There are also a ton of people with PhDs who end up working as research scientists at Universities (i.e. a non-tenured position), government organizations, or other research institutions. These people sometimes take on teaching jobs if they are affiliated with a school, but they would primarily be researchers, and would not have admin or teaching requirements like profs sometimes do.
I don't know anyone who has done this personally, but I've heard that financial firms will often hire Physics and Math PhDs (one recruiter told us that they prefer Physics graduate students due to experience working with real data but I don't know how true this is).
Finally, if you do a MSc and decide you want to leave, some people I know have then go onto Law school to work with patent law or other fields that could benefit from scientific expertise.
However, I don't know how likely it is that you can actually find work in these fields. Hopefully others here can contribute to the list of things you can do! But, I personally wouldn't pursue a PhD without at least one end goal in mind, career-wise, since you probably would want to do certain things (e.g. develop certain skills) during your graduate career to steer you towards your goal. A PhD program is a significant investment, which is why I didn't feel comfortable about my decision to apply for PhD programs until I knew exactly what I want to achieve with it and why I need the PhD training.