Your success will be determined by your overall application and not any particular score or undergraduate institution you went to (check out the list of where the incoming Princeton class is from: http://www.princeton.edu/astro/news-eve ... e/?id=5044
. Definitely not all top universities.) Also, being a female in astronomy/astrophysics isn't all that impressive or unique as it is for physics departments. We just have a lot more women in our subfield.
The strongest programs you listed for cosmology are Princeton (both astro and physics departments), UChicago (faculty and Kavli institute, basically everything) and Harvard. Cosmology is a hot field not just for astronomers but physicists as well, so you'll compete against both types of applicants at these places.
Columbia's strengths are currently in theory and computation, not experiment unfortunately (source Columbia astronomy professor).
UPenn is not a very mainstream nor well known graduate program for astronomy research (although cosmology would be their relative strong point) (Source NRC, and their department website is quite focused on cosmology).
Yale is not a terribly high-ranked program (NRC), but they have young faculty now and it will likely get better in a few years (their website). But they only seek to enroll THREE non-Chilean students a year (their website), though, so you won't likely get in simply by the numbers. Wouldn't hurt to apply if you can spare the application fee.
JHU isn't as reputable as Harvard, Princeton and UChicago, but it's quite a strong program with some notable faculty, especially in cosmology (NRC, their website e.g. Adam Riess and Chuck Bennett). They don't care about the PGRE as much, so you'd likely get in there more easily if you don't bomb it.
Stony Brook and NYU are decent programs, but won't be incredibly competitive to get into. Yale is usually ranked at the bottom of the top US programs (top 20 or 25 or so). Stony Brook and NYU usually don't show up.
I don't know much about Penn State. It is very well regarded by the NRC. I can't say how justified it is.
I'm probably going to get hated on for citing the NRC so much, but that is
the general consensus about the prestige of the programs, whether it's individual faculty or the NRC that says it. All the schools she mentioned are at least good, but some are more notable. Your chances will vary as such.