I'll assume you're referring to non-academic jobs.
Think about which companies are the biggest employers of science-y people.
Obviously you've got all the national labs.
Major private government defense contractors like Boeing, Lockheed, Raytheon
Semi-academic private labs like the JHU's Applied Physics Lab and MIT's Lincoln Lab
Big R&D companies like Proctor and Gamble, GE, etc
Keep in mind that many jobs that are in principal for engineers are still open to physicists, so any kind of company that would be hiring lots of engineers, there's a good chance they're hiring physicists too (ok, they're probably not going to let you design and build a bridge without an engineering degree, but they would let you, say, join a team developing new microchip technology or the latest and greatest new detectors for an MRI, even though both of those projects are really more engineering jobs).
Or there's the not-physics-but-hires-physics-people kinds of places like Wall Street and some kinds of consulting jobs... other jobs that require analytical thought...
I'm sure there are lots and lots of other examples.
Really, the question you've asked is so broad it's hard to answer. There are non-professorial jobs in basically every field. Astro (since you used that as an example of a field that might not have a lot of jobs): staffing observatories, developing tactical satellites, astro backgrounds translate well into jobs in radar which have all kinds of defense applications... astro also translates well into signal processing applications, which is useful in all sorts of different industries.
But, at least for the kinds of places I've listed above, you can go on their websites and get some idea of what fields they're focused on. I think you'll find there's a little of everything out there, at least assuming you're an experimentalist. But, it's worth noting that most of the examples I listed above, while they are private, much of their actual research is still government funded in large part. If you're trying to avoid government funding entirely while still doing science research (not, say, wall street), you may find your options somewhat narrowed.