I feel like it may be causal, but the other way around from what you're thinking. I only called/emailed to inquire about schools I was fairly certain had rejected me. Belief that I had probably been rejected caused the call. Not the call caused my rejection.
But that's just me.
Also, of course most of these places are rejecting well over 90% of their applicants, so you expect even from a random sample that the vast majority of inquiries will result in rejection. Especially when you correct for the time-bias of acceptances (acceptances are more likely to go out early, before people get impatient, making rejection even more likely in a random sample once it gets late enough for people to be antsy enough to call).
But, we all knew that. Because we're all nerds here.