I'll add my thoughts, since I'm from Indianapolis.
UIUC is 2 hours away, and a top-notch program. UChicago is a top-notch program, 3.5 hours away with typical traffic. IU is just over an hour away, as is Purdue, and Ohio State is about three. Those programs are both near top-25, depending on whose list you use. Notre Dame is 2.5 hours away, Northwestern is probably 4-4.5 hours, and those schools are pretty good. Michigan and Michigan St. are about 4 hours away. Michigan is top-notch, and State is pretty good, too.
Lower-ranked schools with Ph.D. programs include University of Cincinnati, IUPUI, University of Illinois-Chicago. I did some summer research at IUPUI during high school. It's a pretty small department, but there are some nice professors there who do interesting stuff. For these smaller programs, you definitely want to make sure that you contact professors ahead of time to make sure there's someone there you'd like to work with.