This might be late, but I transferred. I realized I wasn't interested in the city I was living in nor any of the research directions I could take, so I got a M.Sc. and bailed.
I think your best bet is to do something similar, get the M.Sc. and apply again. Mind in US schools you probably also need to contact professors at your other university to line up in advance who you want to work with, yadda yadda, because it's not a normal thing to do it this way (also contact admissions to see if you can get credit for the courses, but be prepared for the fact that you might have to retake some of them). You will definitely need a better reason though than just "I want to move up," such as realizing after arrived that your research interests weren't aligned with your current program (which happens and people understand that).
Should be mentioned btw that if you're ok with going further afield, unlike the US where this is a rare thing to do consider applying to a PhD program in Europe. Here you usually need an M.Sc. before the PhD so you're at a completely normal stage of things to apply- I also liked how in Europe they usually just have listings and you're more applying for a specific project to do, and they're a lot more an emphasis on finishing your project in a certain timeframe than doing any coursework (for example here in the Netherlands I was hired to do one thing, I take no courses, and I need to finish in 4 years end of story- oh and I get paid a normal wage and six weeks vacation). Plus, you know, living in Europe.
Feel free to send me a message if you want any more specific advice, and good luck.