Matter’s elementary structure theory is discussed by the author in his book WHAT ON EARTH IS MATTER (published by Guangxi Science & Technology Press of China in 2009) covering the issues of matter structure and its interaction. This book, divided into 14 chapters with approximately 270,000 Chinese characters, reflects the research findings from the author’s over four decades of endeavors in plain language. The author studied the fundamental problems of matter from the physical and philosophic perspectives in an attempt to resolve the question posed by the book title from a fundamental aspect.
The Main Viewpoints of the Matter’s Elementary Structure Theory Are:
1. Further groundbreaking progress of researches on mainstream theories regarding the matter structure and its interaction is only possible after necessary adjustments on research models have been made.
The presently available mainstream theories around the globe on matter structure and its interaction include quantum field theory, gauge field theory, standard model theory, quantum gravitation theory, string theory, etc. Although interpretations on varies issues exist to some extent across different theories, the major goals and fundamental ideas are accordant. These theories have accomplished tremendous successes through researches on matter structure and its interaction from different angles; nevertheless, they all encountered development stagnancy in recent years. Same as most other scientific theories, they are composed of numerous hypotheses, which usually act as an essential role for their development in a certain period. The problem is, if the mother nature turns her back on human’s fine thoughts, or if the nature is not what we think it is, the foundation of theories would be shaken, and the theory skyscrapers that people attempted to build above the hypotheses foundation in decades might not result in expected fruition.
These theories on hypothesis of matter structure state that the objects made up by components are the ordered and stable-state “particles”, which are congregation of matters that exist independently with boundaries. Any “particle” is either composed of smaller and equally ordered and stable-state new particles, or transformed from other particles (including photon); in fact, they explained particle with particle. Past theories suggested that particles which make up proton are several different “quarks” while each of them carries 1/3 or 2/3 of electric quantity. Nonetheless, is the nature really able to learn the incision techniques so exquisitely? Can it really come up with these diverse types of “particles” in the “molds” as humans speculated? Where did these “molds” originate from? Is the ordered form of matter structure (corpuscular property) truly perpetual?
These theories, when referring to the aspect of interaction, are based on the hypotheses that a type of particles with transmitting ability exist in any interaction among matter particles. These particles are depicted either as virtual particle, which is the aggregation of divergence state, or as a type of structure constructed in suffused state. In general, most theories agreed that a “field” different from material particle does exist, and they considered it possessing the nature of noumenon and the function of transmitting interaction among particles. Therefore, those theories were in fact expounding interaction with interaction. Nevertheless, why can these transmissible particles exist in a certain form (in spite of the extremely short time)? Why do they have transmitting ability? In the eyes of nature, are things forming field and particles of substance entirely different? Are these ordered forms (i.e. elasticity, gravitation, and electricity) of interaction among matters eternal?
String theory, which already adopted the vibration concept as the existing form of “particles”, has been greatly advanced from “point particle” or “particle of entity” concept, and the author was enlightened by it to bring up the quantum wave concept and the theory on matter’s elementary structure consequently. However, the current string theory still treats string as particle-like, solo-existing, self-vibrating object with boundaries. Then what is the mechanism that triggers string’s self-vibration? Why can string exist in certain forms, and why interaction happens among them? Can nature really create these independently existing and vibrating strings that do not require any kind of “medium”?
The theories above all accurately rejected the structureless atomism and rigid “material entity” views; however, they did not explore for a flexible form of material reality, and instead were trapped in another fixed thinking pattern of “infinite layers of matter structure” and “matter’s ordered structure form is eternal”. These theories only considered “energy” and “mass” as the innate characteristics of matter, but failed to explore the question of “what is energy?” and “what is mass?” from the angle of unity of matter’s property and form. These theories had existed among a series of contradictories for quite a long time, including wave property and corpuscular property, continuity and intermittence, locality and non-locality, reality and probability, symmetry and broken symmetry, infinity and renormalization, field and particle, and independent “background” and fixed “background”. Although they laid out numerous proposals to elucidate these paradoxical phenomena of physics, the explanations seem feeble because the researches were not conducted from a more fundamental aspect, which results in an undistinguishable variance between fundamental hierarchy and quantum hierarchy.
Too much hope was gathered for the experiment result of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While the experiment definitely plays a significant role in the development of quantum physics, it is unclear of its ability to find proton, let alone the composing “particle” inside electron. Even if scientists eventually discover the particles that make up proton and electron, then what are these new particles made of? Could the scientific history of human’s exploration to matter structure be just a layer-by-layer anatomy? While such research method has served its purpose throughout the past, its role to be effective at this present era is not justified. It is time to dig deep for the fundamental cause for the creation of the ordered matter structure form.
The studies on theories of matter structure and its interaction should take a fundamentally innovative path and make necessary adjustment to the research model from the prevailing theories. Otherwise, further accomplishments are virtually impossible to achieve. On the research topic of matter structure and its interaction theory, we have been lingering at the verge of success for so long that we adopted too many mathematics methods to complicate and mystify simple problems; but does it pull us closer to the goal of success? We should reflect whether a thinking habit has been set to hinder a cognitive development so that the light veil covered on “mystery of matter” has not yet been disclosed.
What is the fixed thinking pattern that affected the theory development? It may be caused by lack of comprehension to the universal homogeneity of matter structure and by weakened overall desires for breakthrough motives. Although many scientists made great efforts to study the “uniformity” issue, most of them are reluctant to admit that field and particle, electromagnetic effect and gravitational effect, proton and electron, and proton and neutron belong to the same form of matter in the more fundamental level. They did not seek for this uniformity in a more elementary level, or at least did not consider it a priority; instead they designed a number of more complex forms of matter that apparently distance further from nature’s original appearance. It may be caused by excessive reliance on experiences to take particle as independently existing matter with boundary, which possess innate characteristics of energy, mass, and electricity; their thinking patterns can not escape the preset framework. Or it may be caused by their inability to identify a flexible concrete form of matter in order for their thinking mode to expand deeply. As a result, the foundation of primitive nature can not be found for matter’s ordered and stable movement state, which is a form of matter without elasticity, gravity, electric property, and corpuscular property; it is disordered, formless, and changes infinitely. It may also be caused by a certain degree of comprehension to matter structure which has led to growing interference between exploration methods and its objects, as well as ambiguous mutual boundary between subject and object of cognition. Consequently, they were short of confidence to accurately understand the world of matter, and instead placed more focus of theory on explanation to phenomena and measurement results.
For instance, as for the large amount of unstable “particles” appeared in experiments (a few from theory prediction), they do not deem it the manifestation form of the elementary quantum from non-fundamental aspect but categorize the phenomena into the same level of proton and electron based on the observation result, making the number of “elementary particle” classifications increase inevitably.
The matter’s elementary structure theory brings up several novel ideas aiming to supply some new thoughts regarding the theory research of matter structure and its interaction. The matter’s fundamental structure theory is not just aggregated by some hollow perception or abstract physical concept; it obtains strong quantitative property and computability which set to explain the currently available scientific experiments and to foresee facts of future experiment, and strives for the self logicality of its system. The theory did not adopt math tools or physics models that are too complicated because the author believes that the physical phenomenon developed from disordered and amorphous matter structure to ordered and stable-state quantum form is a simple and rudiment physical occurrence that should not require complex math tools. The author asserts that if the main ideas from this theory were proven accurate through practices, it can then insert some influence on the fundamental theory research of modern physics and application research of quantum physics, and will propel the research on philosophical fundamental research as well. The author holds firm belief that any major breakthrough on theories of matter structure and its interaction in the future must be related to some viewpoints from matter’s elementary structure theory. Within the framework of matter’s elementary structure theory, attaining breakthrough progress in some aspects is highly possible.
2. Any concrete matter has structure, and matter structure is divided into layers but the level of hierarchy is finite; the ordered form of matter structure is not perpetual.
While studying matter structure, people realized that some structure forms of matter are in relatively consistent and stable state. This type of structure is concrete, as it exists within certain specific object, but is also universal, as the same form is present somewhere else. Such structure’s inside and outside is composed of smaller and larger structures with consistent and stable nature, and the phenomenon of which is called the hierarchical property of matter structure. For instance, although vast variances are present among different types of molecules, they are all comprised of just over 100 kinds of atoms. As many identical combinations (e.g. water molecule and glucose molecule) share the same consistent and stable nature, molecule can be called a structure layer, and atom is another one follows. Each kind of atom consists of proton and electron, obviously making them to form the structure of the next layer.
Although people did not discover further layer of matter structure, they still feel that such types of layers should be infinite. This standpoint should as well just conform to dialectics since it objects the stiff concept of material entity. The infinite layers theory is also painless; as people try to uncover the secret of matter layer by layer, scrutiny on the fundamental reason behind the formation of matter’s ordered structure seem unnecessary. Even if vast amount of time lapses before the thorough analysis to certain layer was completed, they seem to care less because the deep cognitive understanding is time consuming after all and they do not mind waiting. The idea of unlimited layers is a summary concluded from people’s observation to existing physical phenomenon; yet they fail to question whether this method of reasoning is rational.
In fact, the layer’s characteristic of matter structure dramatically diminishes above that of atom: over 100 types of atoms can form tens of millions of molecules, causing its nature of layer submerged in the ocean of matters with various shapes and states. That being said, the molecules are composed of atoms after all, so it is still appropriate to consider molecules as a structure layer. However, when talking about macroscopic matter world in a large extent, such as relationship between objects and the earth, planets and the solar system, the solar system and the Milky Way Galaxy, one can not possibly apply the concept of layers to describe it anymore because scientific practices have not found any sign of consistency or stableness there. Under atom, there are only a few sorts of such stable particles as proton, electron, and photon, so the hierarchical property is quite obvious. But what else is further inside? People have designed dozens of particles with the attempt of create a new structure layer, but it has not yet been proven as successful.
Maybe it is time to pause and reflect whether the logic of explaining the layer already narrowing down to just a few particles with a new layer composing more particles reasonable? Is it the true appearance of the nature? Thus, the author deem that the layers of matter structure is not infinite; regardless of how proton, electron, and photon should be understood, be some kind of “particle” or “a form of matter’s motion”, structure can still exist in them but not necessarily in a consistent and stable form of structure.
The viewpoint of infinite layer of matter structure will lead to ideas of matter’s ordered form as eternal structure. Although people do not insist that such specific matters as atom and proton are everlasting, in reality they hold the view either intentionally or unconsciously that the ordered forms such as corpuscular property, elasticity, gravity, and electricity are perpetual. This belief exerts tremendous influence on their perceptions so that basically the train of thought in research is to use new particle to explain present particle, new elasticity to explain current elasticity, new gravity to explain existing gravity, new electricity to explain old electricity, and even hypothetical and peculiar fractional electricity to explain integer electricity. While theory of matter’s unified structure and unified-field theory are the pursuits and efforts from generations of physicians, these remarkable efforts are built on research of certain structure layer without fundamental research on the forming mechanism of corpuscular property, elasticity, gravity, and electricity. But is the ordered form of matter structure really perpetual?
Most objects are made of molecules, which in term consist of atoms, which are composed of protons and electrons. So what are protons and electrons composed of? After several decades of attempts, the electron still remains intact, and proton has not been broken down as well despite of the great quarks hypothesis. Since insufficient energy took the blame, people invested huge amount of money into Large Hadron Collider and consequently accomplished numerous experiment outcomes, and yet the problem is still unresolved. Some scholars confused infinite layer concept with matter’s infinite division concept; others contributed the cause of ordered form to “historical” reason, meaning everything in the world of matter, including all kinds of particles and forces as well as the familiar law of matter’s motion, appeared at the nascent stage during the “birth” of the universe. This proposal actually denied the viewpoint of matter structure’s eternal ordered form because it brings up the origin issue of the ordered form; however, it asserts that even at that moment, the form of gravity still exists perpetually. The scientific experiment already proved that in reality, the creation of proton and antiproton pair, electron and antielectron pair is exactly identical at any location of the universe with the right condition, which means the theory of historical interpretation is not necessarily accurate. Yet some others play down the concept of particle, claiming it as manifestation of the “field”. Still, the question “what on earth is field” remains.
The author claims that matter’s form of ordered structure is not perpetual; the prevailing form found universally in our world has its origin. The scientific history of modern time shows that the type of unified forms of matter’s motion understood by human has been declined from tens of millions molecules to over one hundred atoms, and then to a few stable particles. In the past few decades, more elementary and independent particles inside these few stable particles like proton and electron could no longer be found. Apparently, it is a reminder for people to start thinking the elementary structure of matter now. The universality and unity become stronger when the number of particle types lessens, and eventually it will lead to the understanding of matter’s most elementary structure form. Due to misinterpretation from the scientific history, many people instinctively resist the concept of “elementary” and “absolute” because they are afraid to repeat the mistake of the “rigid atomism”. What they failed to realize is that development is built only on foundation, and relativity makes sense only in comparison with absoluteness. The theory on matter’s elementary structure discusses “elementary” and “absolute” in lengthy pages, but it does not at all enlist connotation of “rigid” or “ultimate”.
The matter structure’s infinite layer standpoint itself is a hypothesis; it will remain as a theory before it is proven wrong. People have been exploring the secret of matter’s deeper meaning under its guideline and have obtained quite some achievements, and such study should persist because any scientific exploration is valuable. Nonetheless, it is also crucial to raise doubt over a hypothesis that has not shown significant research findings after a long period of research (in fact, any hypothesis must be reasonably doubted since its establishment). The author holds the views that layers of matter structure is not infinite and that matter’s ordered structure form is not eternal. Hopefully these views will take up a small place in the theoretical realm as new hypotheses, guiding people to carry out some logical reasoning and to seek for means to prove them true or false. It could just be possible that a new thinking pattern can lead to the road of ultimate success.
3. Matter’s elementary structure form is the changing entity and interstice.
The author believes that matter’s ordered structure form is transformed from the disordered and amorphous structure form, which is its elementary structure form. As it is disordered and unstructured, there are unlimited types of them; but since they lack of distinctive structure, it can be deemed just one kind. Matter’s elementary structure form is both concrete and universal, and it exists within any concrete matter (including itself).
Matter’s elementary structure form is equivalent to the changing entity and interstice, in other words, the dialectic matter and non-matter. The entity and interstice exist both absolutely and relatively, both changing infinitely and expressing real presence at any given time. The entity is plastic as it can be divided from any location, and it is also inelastic as it can not be compressed. The entity can be divided or combined infinitely, but it is expressed as finite form at any time.
The existence of any material entity has boundary, which is matter’s finite property of space. For any finite material entity, more of which are available beyond it, and that is the nature of infinity of matter’s space extension. Within finite material entity, the infinity nature is present and can be divided immensely, but any of its current state is in an undivided, unified, and finite state. This is the dialectic relationship between the finiteness and infinity property of matter’s space form. The emphasis placed on the shifting process of any material entity is always periodic. At one phrase, it changes from one form to another, making this process (i.e. time) the finite nature of matter. Nonetheless, any given finite process was changing before it, there is not a “time” when the transformation begins and no “time” for ending, which is the nature of infinity of matter’s time extension. A finite course can be divided into infinite sub-courses while going through infinite amount of state; all these sub-courses are connected together to express a finite process. This is the dialectic relationship between the finiteness and infinity nature of matter’s time form.
The author believes that we can only discuss the issue of finiteness and infinity nature of the space and time in the specific universe. There is no such concept as the entire universe because the infinite universe does not exist; the concrete universe is always the unity of opposites of finiteness and infinity. We can only create the concept of nature of finiteness and infinity above the extension and connotation of matter’s space and time. We can not attempt to erect the concept of the entire material world or treat matter as infinite since matter is always the unity of opposites of finiteness and infinity.
Matter’s elementary structure, which is the changing entity and interstice, constitutes the concept of material reality, which is composed of ideas of matter and non-matter. It possesses concreteness, universality, uniqueness, and dialectic property; it is the origin of everything that is both concrete and general. Material reality is the foundation of quantum reality.
At the initial development stage of matter structure, stable form of space is not available for establishing unit of length, steady progress is not present for unit of time, and the descriptive objects are not in a stable state so the numeric concept can not be established. Mathematics as a thinking tool is not eternal; it has to deal with the issue of origin as well. To study matter’s elementary structure form, logic can be used instead of math. Only when matter’s elementary structure form evolves into ether structure and the quantum wave is formed could mathematics tools be applied in physics. The changes from substance’s interaction possesses uncertainty of non-causality and indeterminism; only after matter’s elementary structure form developed into ether structure and the quantum wave is formed can changes from quantum interaction possess certainty of causality and determinism. Proton (or other small/new particles that might be revealed within it), electron, and photon are structure forms shifted from matter’s disordered forms into ordered ones; it is the most primitive and stable structure form.
The scientific experiments do not sustain viewpoints of eternity for any concrete things, neither their noumenon nor their mode of motion. The disordered and amorphous nature of matter’s elementary structure makes it no longer a fixed shape. There is no ordered object, no energy or mass, no velocity or force, and no measurements or computation, which ensures the fundamental, ubiquitous, and uniformed nature and the promising and everlasting future which can thrive from this foundation. The matter’s elementary structure viewpoint objects the idea of ossifying matter’s concrete form, such as rigid “atomism” or material substance standpoint; it also opposes methods of entire separation from concrete form to define matter with total abstraction, for example, to describe matter as the object beyond consciousness. Emphasis should be placed on studying the universal law of matter’s movement in the concrete matter structure form to combine concretion with abstraction, uniqueness with universality to make it not only “visible and touchable” but also possess the characteristics of ubiquity and generality.
The author believes that an ideal experiment can be designed to incise objects (regardless of its size, can be a proton or the earth) with ideal plane to prove that absolute entity and absolute interstice exist and their relative change is infinite and eternal. Matter’s elementary structure form is the most direct and basic manifestation of matter and law of unity of opposites. The concept of matter’s elementary structure form will shed a light on the study of this form through an angle of finiteness rather than infinitesimal space and time, and then to conduct researches on the forming mechanism of corpuscular property, elasticity, gravity, and electric property upon the matter construction basis foundation that is disordered, amorphous, and constantly changing but uniformed and finite. As a result, physics will expand to a brand new research realm. The researches on matter’s elementary structure form and how it developed into ordered forms such as ether structure and quantum wave are called matter’s elementary structure theory, which is the component of quantum theory. Exploration of this theory is not to seek for final theory but to look for a primitive and straightforward comprehension to matter’s motion development.
4．Matter’s elementary structure consists of homogeneous and systematic development trend, which must inevitably form the ether structure. The existence of ether structure is compatible with the theory of relativity. The ether structure as wave of medium is quantum wave; the particle is wave.
Ether is the hypothetical medium of matter adopted by physicians to explain interaction and undulating phenomenon. In the historical ether view, particle and ether is strictly separated. Under this belief, the ship of particles sails through the ocean of ether with high speed, so the encounter of extremely powerful resistance should be unavoidable. Nevertheless, this resistance force was never measurable in any lab experiment; the failure to gauge velocity of ship of particles relative to the ocean of ether (i.e. velocity of ether wind) is even more unaccountable. Thus, ether faded out of sight at the turn of 20th century. The author contends that ether should return to physics, or numerous physical phenomena can not be elucidated. In addition, almost a century has passed since ether concept was abandoned, and matter’s unified theories of structure and field have not embraced a major breakthrough. Why not reconsider ether for inspiration of new thoughts?
The author asserts that matter’s elementary structure consists of homogenization and systemization development tendency. That is to say, the changing entity and interstice have been in natural and entirely random motion, and have gone through long period of time at an extensive space. During this process, the entity’s space distribution and mode of motion tend to homogenize, and the interaction among entities has been reinforced, which can be referred to as systemization; such matter structure form is called the ether structure. It is the product of matter’s elementary structure form through homogenization and systematization, and is the most prominent step of development from the disordered to ordered structure form.
The new ether perspective is fundamentally distinctive from the traditional one with the following traits:
1) The ether structure is built directly upon the foundation of matter’s elementary structure; the foundation does not have unique structure as it is neither a mechanical form nor a purely continual and suffused form but rather the unity of continuity and intervals.
2) After the ether structure is formed, it obsesses the characteristics of deformity and self restoration. The force in system areas where it is compressed and tries to restore is shown as elasticity, or repelling property; the force in system areas where it is stretched and attempts to restore is also elasticity but in the nature of attraction. This is the most fundamental elasticity and attraction phenomena formed by matter’s elementary structure.
3) After the formation of ether structure, the consistency in large scale and for relatively long period of time is the most basic phenomenon of symmetry formed by matter’s elementary structure.
4) After the ether structure is formed, it obtains systematic nature in extensive areas and for quite a long period, which is the reciprocal relationship among matters; it is the material foundation of the most fundamental “field” formed by matter’s elementary structure.
5) Within ether structure, there is no other “particle” like matter stemmed from any traditional concept but only the “wave” whose medium is itself. The “wave” is quantum wave, which is the expression of ether; unlike traditional macroscopic wave, it is composed of portions of waves that are not propagated (the form of wave, not the matter it comprises). In other words, quantum wave is particle, and particle is wave.
6) Like light wave, “particle of substance” itself is a type of wave and the expression of ether, so “the resistance that object encounters in ether” is no longer an issue.
7) Because “particle of substance” is wave, we as observers and the observation equipment are all waves’ mode of motion, which is the expression of the medium itself. Naturally, “we” will not be able to discover the “absolute” motion of medium that carries “us”, and therefore will not feel the “ether wind”.
The ether structure and quantum wave do not exist perpetually, they constantly are generated and perished in a total random way; the smaller the scale, the shorter the period, the weaker (i.e. low frequency) the quantum wave, the higher the generating and perishing frequency becomes. In wide-ranging area and for long period of time, ether structure maintains strong stability, and strong (i.e. high frequency) quantum wave (not refer to compound quantum) is also highly stable.
9) The concept of ether structure and quantum wave does not aim for building an absolutely stationary and homogeneous background or space-time framework, as space and time are always the expression of motion of matter. Uniformity, systematization, and homogeneity are not absolute but rather relative. No one can judge how different the ether structure is in other galaxy clusters comparing to the one surrounding us; all we know is that such structure can also be form there, in the structure where quantum wave can also be formed, and such wave can possess the property of “consistency of wave velocity” as well. As for whether they have the same wave velocity or other nature’s constants is probably not a paramount concern.
The author spent pages on his book WHAT ON EARTH IS MATTER to expound the compatibility between existence of ether structure and the transformation formula of special theory of relativity by Einstein. To convert among different frames of reference according to the special theory of relativity, the result is consilient even after insertion of a hypothesis to switch with the stationary frame of reference of ether; same outcome appeared with the electromagnetic formula of theory of relativity based on the aforementioned method. It signifies that the existence of ether structure and the transformation formula of special theory of relativity by Einstein are compatible.
The author tirelessly proofs the existence of ether is not contradictory with relativity theory with an effort to introduce ether back to the theories realm of physics. When accomplished, one can look for traits of quantum in the real ether structure, and the existence of which is momentous for researching on topics of quantum structure, electromagnetic, wave-particle duality, and reciprocal force among quantum. The ether structure is even more significant for the issue of quantum’s stable state; it contains not only the question of “did God toss the dice?” but also “how did God make the mould?” It refers to the question of why the material world created “particles” that are “unified in size”, which can not be explained by simply relying on “historical reason”. Disordered material world has created relatively stable “particles” such as proton and electron. Why can “mould made by God” be so standardized? The question is only explicable upon the return of ether concept.
The author spent nearly 20 years to envisage the dehomogenization of matter distribution on the foundation of disordered and amorphous matter’s elementary structure form with the desire to form “particle” structure without success. Then with the inspiration of the string theory, he proposes homogenization of matter’s elementary structure, hypothesis of systematic development trend and ether structure, and hypothesis of quantum wave, which resolved many questions accordingly. For instance, the symmetry of universe and the extremely heterogeneous nature of particle (or mass) distribution in the universe can be explained by stating that the symmetry of the universe is built upon the homogeneous basis of matter’s elementary structure, while the corpuscular property and mass are on the base of quantum wave. Just as the distributions of wave and matter in the Pacific Ocean are two different concepts, those of quantum wave and entity are also physical concepts in two different layers.
5. Quantum waves consist of two forms: Bose-wave and Fermi-wave.
Quantum waves exist in two forms: Bose-wave and Fermi-wave. With Bose-wave, the wave center moves towards a single direction and the speed of wave is the speed of light; with Fermi-wave, the wave center vibrates and travels back and forth in certain area, but the speed of wave is also the speed of light. Pure Bose-wave is proton, and pure Fermi-wave is stationary particle of substance; once in motion, it contains component of Bose-wave and Fermi-wave simultaneously. The right triangle can depict quantum wave where the hypotenuse, vertical leg, and horizontal leg represent velocity, frequency (energy and mass), and wave density (momentum) of quantum’s total energy, Fermi-wave component, and Bose-wave component respectively. From then on, quantum wave is not just a concept, but a quantifiable and computable form; familiar math format and physical formula appear within the matter’s elementary structure (including basic and original form that contains relativity theory and other similar classical forms). With this description, the transformation formula of relativity theory can be demonstrated naturally (including the factor in the formula), and the related formulas (including the factor c2 in the formula) regarding energy and mass, as well as vacuum permittivity and vacuum permeability, are also naturally shown. The unifications between quantum’s corpuscular property and wave property, between relativity theory and quantum theory, between mass and energy, and between electric field and magnetic field then had concrete material foundation. The basis of all measurement and computation in physics has property of not only quantum but also of relativity theory, and the macroscopic and classical measurement and computation are approximated values.
The basis for quantum wave concept (including the concept that quantum waves exist in two forms: Bose-wave and Fermi-wave) is practice. The scientific experiments supported the correspondence nature between the energy and frequency expressed by Planck’s constant, the law of energy conservation, and the mass-energy related theory by Einstein; these are the theoretical and practical foundations for proposal of the quantum wave concept. If not established, it will be highly difficult to explicate why the energy related to stationary mass can not possess wave property and measurability of frequency like kinetic energy. If the concept of quantum wave is not present, the potential energy can not match the amount of frequency, and the potential energy and kinetic energy transmit from one another through the interaction of quantum, causing frequency augment or decline groundlessly (the most typical example is that the positive and negative fermion annihilates into proton), which is not expected from a thorough theory. Since the concepts of energy conservation, correspondence between energy and frequency, and related mass and energy are well founded, why not continue with the establishment of the more fundamental concept of total frequency equivalent conservation for quanta’s interaction? All being considered, the author claims that the concept of quantum wave theory has practical basis, is coherent with traditional theories, and is logical. When it is introduced to the scientific world, many quantum phenomena of physics can be relatively well explained.
The concept of quantum wave is influenced by the string theory to a large extend. De Broglie’s “matter wave” is primarily connected to particle’s state of motion, in other words, the kinetic energy and momentum. The string theory asserts that “static” particle also vibrates, which is a major progress. In theory of matter’s elementary structure form, quantum wave is entirely different from macroscopic wave as it refrains its own shape from diffusion. In a sense, quantum wave is somewhat similar to “string”, and the concept of “Fermi-wave” and “Bose-wave” and that of “loop string” and “open string” in the string theory is even more similar. Nonetheless, quantum wave is after all a type of wave and an undulating form of medium, which is not containable by the string concept. Yet, it is alright to describe quantum wave as “wave string”. String describes a vibrating thing to which the theory needs to provide explanation on its origin and structure; quantum wave, on the other hand, is the undulation of ether medium and is the “thing” by itself so no particular explanation is necessary.
The key distinctions between quantum wave concept and the string concept in the present string theory are: 1) The concept of quantum wave is built on matter’s elementary structure foundation of entity and interstice and of ether structure; it possesses solid foundation of material reality. 2) Quantum wave is integrated with system; it does not possess proprietary matter, nor does it obtain obvious boundary. 3) The description of fermion and boson through right triangle naturally realizes most fundamental measurability and computability of physical phenomena in forms of quantum theory and relativity theory’s combination. 4) Quantum wave concept strives for simplicity and unity, which does not support the existence of “eleven-dimensional” space. 5) Quantum wave concept hopes to include proton, static fermion, and moving fermion into theoretical framework. 6) It is hoped that the quantum wave concept can explain the positive and negative property of fermions, which is the issue of positive and negative electric property from the elementary structure (i.e. wave shape) perspective. 7) It is hoped that the concept can also based on its own character, which is the tendency for synchronization of wave interference among quantum waves as foundation, to provide solution for interaction issue and stable-state issue of quantum.
6. The unit system of quantum is a revolutionary reform in physics.
The author brought up the concept of “unit system of quantum”, that is to replace energy with frequency (cycles/second), kinetic energy with wave density (cycles/meter), force with /m (cycles/second), mass with / c2 (cycles/second) (mass is one way of energy’s expression, which is primarily used in occasions where quantum’s velocity of movement is indicated by absolute value instead of ratio with speed of light, such as kinetic energy or low speed momentum). Electricity is expressed by the number of basic fermion (indicated by “e”) which is distinguished between positive and negative electric charges (i.e. positive and negative electricity). As a result, the physical formula does not possess the usual energy and mass, neither does Planck’s constant h exist; instead, there are only a few physical quantities like second, meter, cycle, and e, as well as constants such as speed of light c, circumference ratioπ, fine structure constant α , and gravitational constant G. Formulas and theorems from kinematics, kinetics, electromagnetism, to Bohr hydrogen atom’s energy-level analysis and quantum’s wave equation can be easily described, disclosing relationships among physical phenomena connections directly. For instance, in the unit system of quantum, the unit of both resistance and fine structure constant is “cycles/ e2 ”, indicating the close relationship between the two, a claim that has been recognized by the theoretical realm; the unit of angular momentum is “cycle”, exhibiting the wave property. Quantum unit system is a major revolutionary to the physical unit system, and it is entirely corresponding with international and other classical unit system. Comparing with natural unit system, its meaning is different from both theoretical and practical perspectives. It describes seemingly in-depth quantum physical phenomenon with simple and fundamental one, and therefore reflects nature’s original feature veritably.
The matter’s elementary structure theory contends that wave is the primary form of physical phenomenon; the velocity of wave is stable, so is its frequency. More importantly, due to its property of uniformity and symmetry, the total energy of frequency is always conserved during quantum’s interaction, which has been proven by theories and experiments related to laws of energy conservation, definition of Planck’s constant, and Einstein’s mass and energy related laws. Therefore, the proposal of quantum unit system has its practical foundation, and is correlative with traditional theories. Quantum unit system is the foundation of international unit system (or other classical unit system), their conjunction point is the conversion rate between frequency and energy by the act of man, which is the Planck’s constant = 6.626075×10 34J•s in the classical unit system
Key constants and unit conversions:
1) Circumference ratio: π = 3.1415926, zero dimension，or: m/m.
2）Constant of speed of light: c = 2.99792458×108，m/s.
3）Basic quantity of electricity: e, which is the number of basic fermions（distinguished between positive and negative）.
4）Planck’s constant: h=1 （quantum’s unit system）.
5）Fine structure constant: α = 0.00729735308, unit: cycles/e2.
6）Gravitational constant: G = 6.87824803094×10-77 m•s（the denominator of the gravitational formula is represented in terms of surface area of a sphere, adding the factor 4π）.
7）Permittivity of vacuum: =（1/2ac）e2/(m/s) , (α is the fine structure constant，c is speed of light. When a summarized unit comes with the equation, it indicates that a and c are pure numerical values and without unit, hereinafter the same) .
8）Magnetic permeability of vacuum: =1/（ c2）=2a/c s/（e2m）.
9） Electron: energy: E = 0.51099906MeV （eV is electron volt, a unit of energy），mass = 9.1093897×10-31 kg，frequency = 1.235589873 ×1020 cycles/s，wave length = 2.426310417 ×10-12m/cycle.
10）Proton：energy = 938.27231MeV，mass = 1.6726231×10-27kg，frequency = 2.2687317502 ×1023 cycles/s，wavelength = 1.32140989331 ×10-15m/cycle，mass of proton/mass of electron = 1836.15275569.
11）Frequency（energy）unit：cycles/s，1J of energy is equivalent to: 1.509189075 × 1033 cycles/s，1eV（electron volt）equals to 2.417988523 × 1014 cycles/s.
12）Unit of mass：s/m2, 1 kilogram of mass is equivalent to frequency: 1.3563914968×1050 cycles/s, which equals to 1.509189075×1033s/m2.
13）Wave density（momentum）unit：cycles/m，1kg•m/s = 1.509189075×1033 cycles/m.
14）Unit of force:（cycles/s）/m ，1N= 1.509189075×1033（cycles/s）/m.
15）Unit of moment of force: cycles/s, 1Nm = 1.509189075×1033 cycles/s.
16）Unit of momentum moment: cycle, 1（kg•m/s）m = 1.509189075×1033 cycles. 17）Unit of quantity of electricity: e, 1 coulomb（C）= 6.241506363×1018e.
18）Unit of electric field strength:（cycles/s）/(m•e) , 1V/m= 2.41798852×1014 （cycles/s）/(m•e).
19）Unit of electric flux:（cycles/s）m/e，electric flux of a quantum with basic quantity of electricity =2ac （cycles/s）m/e.
20）Unit of electric potential: (cycles/s)/ e ， 1V electric potential = 2.41798852× 1014 (cycles/s)/ e.
21）Unit of capacitance： e2/（cycles/s），1F =2.5812803954×104 e2/（cycles/s）. 22）Unit of current：e /s， 1A = 6.241506363×1018e/s.
23） Unit of resistance：cycles/e2，closely related to the fine structure constant，1Ω = 3.8740459×10-6 cycles/e2，1 cycle/e2 = 25812.807Ω（i.e. constant of Klaus von Klitzing）.
24）Unit of intensity of magnetic induction: (cycles/m)/(e• m) , 1 Tesla（T）= 2.41798852×1014 (cycles/m)/(e•m).
25）Unit of magnetic field strength: e /（s•m）, 1A/m = 6. 241506363×1018 e /（s• m.）.
26）Unit of magnetic flux: cycles/e, 1Wb= 2.41798852×1014cycles/e.
27）Unit of inductance: s/e2 ,1H=3.85404641×10-5s/e2.
28）Unit of magnetic moment: e•m2/s