My experience with US PhD programs is that they will generally not let you count too many MS courses towards your PhD. You will still have to do the majority of them. I also had an MSc coming into a US PhD program. One program would waive 3 out of 15 required courses if you entered with a Masters (from the US or internationally).
Also, you don't always have to be enrolled to remain in the US. Like I was saying you could get onto OPT status. http://www.uscis.gov/archive/archive-ne ... d-students
You can be authorised to remain your MS F-1 status for up to 12 months post-graduation if you meet these requirements. Talk to your school's international office to get more information. I am also a foreign student and I have found my international program office to be extremely helpful for confusing stuff like this.
I'm saying this not to discourage you from entering a January-start program, but to give you an alternate path of action to consider in case your January-start plan does not work out. However, a PhD is a long program. Maybe it's better to get into a fall-start program that fits you well instead of rushing to get into just any January-start program.